Jan. 13, 1931.
H. NYQUIST 1,788,470
ELECTROOPTICAL SYSTEM Filed May 26 192 /NVEN7'0R HARRY NYQU/ST A TTOrPNEY units.
is ever at HARRY 1! YQUIST, OF IILLBURN"NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO ALEEBJOAN 'JJEIIIAETEHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY,-A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK ELnoTnoorrzoAL SYSTEM Applieatiqn fi M i "22" This invention relates to electrIo-optical systems, and more particularly to apparatus and methods for controlling light'by the Kerr effect.
The principal object of the invention is 1 the improvement of the operating characpassing through the second Nicol prism (that is, the one remote from the source f light) and, therefore, the amplitude of .he light reaching the object to beillu-minat- -d, is proportional to'the square of the volt age impressed on the electrodes of the Kerr cell. Since the intensity of light varies as the square of the amplitude, the intensity of the light reaching the object to be illuminated varies as the fourth power of the voltage impressed on the Kerr cell. Such a system may 3e used for reproducing pictures electro-optically, for example. lVhen so used, the disadvantage is present that certain portions of the light sensitive receiving 3.5 surface are greatly over-eXposed,--thus rethe square of the controlling voltage.
sulting in the distortion ofthe reproduction.
In accordance with the present-invention,
an arrangement is provided whereby the amplitude of the light reaching the object to be illuminated varies in direct proportionto the amplitude of the controlling electrometive force and, therefore, the intensity of the light reaching the object is proportional to If the controlling voltage varies in accordance with theitone values of. elemental areas of a picture or object, an image of which is to e produced, the lightreaching the corre- 5U sponding elemental areas of .t l 1e,;i 1nage .or
1928. sernu 110,280,887.
picture re ceiving surface is closer to the value required for distortionless reproduction thanis' the case in similarsystems devised heretofore.
In one of the specific embodiments of the invention herein shown and described, the device for doublyrefracting light comprises a suitable substance such as" nitro-ben'zo'l, and two pairs of electrodes, the planes of the adjacent surfaces of one pair prefer ably being pcrpendicularto the planes of the surfaces of the other pair. Two voltages are impressed on the device, one being the controlling voltage'in accordance with the amplitude'variations of which it is desired to control the amplitude or intensity of the transmitted light. The second'voltage has a fixed characteristic and may, for instance, be from a local source. The corn trolling voltage may be the voltage of the received picture current. These voltages are impressed on the light rotating device in such a manner that the sum of the two voltages .is impressed onone pair of the electrodes and the difference of the two voltages is impressed on the other pair.
' A more detailed description of theinventionfollows and is illustrated in the accompanying drawing.
Figure 1 of the drawing is a diagrammatic showing of a picture transmission system embodying features of the invention.
Fig. 2 shows a modification of the-picture transmission system shown in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 1, .the drum 10 of transparent material having a picture re resentation 11 mounted thereon is driven iiy a motor coupled to the shaft 12 to cause the drum to rot-ate about its axis and at the same time to move slowly in anaxial direction, Light from source 13 is focused bymeans of lens 14 on thepicture filmll so as to illuminate a small area thereof at a time. As the drum is driven, the small spot of light illuminating the fihn, .ii1 effect describes a' helical path thereon, thus illuminating the elemental areas of the ,film in succession. Thelight pass ing through the picture film impinges on the photoelectric cell 15, thereby producing a current which varies in -a c cordance with JAIL.
the tone values of the successively scanned elemental areas of the picture. This current is amplified by the vacuum tube amplifier 16 and transmitted to the picture receiving station over the transmission channel 17.
At the receiving station, a picture drum 18, similar to the drum 10 at the transmitting station, having a light sensitive picture receiving surface 19 mounted thereon, is driven in synchronism with the drum 10 so that the spot of light from source 20 reaching the light sensitive surface in effect describes ai L ght from source 20 passing through lens 21 and reaching thehelical path thereon.
Nicol prism 22 in substantially parallel rays is polarized by the action'of the Nicol "prism. Thepolarized light passes between the adjacent surfaces of the pairs of electrodes 23, 24 and 25, 26, respectively, of the device 27. Electrodes ofthis device are positioned in a vessel containing a suitable substance, such as nitro-benzol, which has the property of doubly refracting light when subjected to the action of an electric field. The light reaching thevdevice 27 is pola i' ed at an angle of about 45 with respect to the planes of the adjacent surfaces of each "pair of electrodes. After passing through the device 27, the light from source 20 passes through a second Nicol prism or analyzer 28 and lens 29 and then impinges on the light sensitive surface 19. The image current received over transmission channel 17 after being amplified by the vacuum tube amplifier is impressed on the primary winding of transformer 34. A unidirectional potential from a localsource 30 is impressed across equal resistance elements 31 and 32 connected in series. Resistance element 31 is connected in series with the secondary winding of transformer 34 to one pair of electrodes 23, 24 of device 2'7. Resistance element 32 is connected in series with the second ary winding of transformer 24 to the other pair of electrodes 25, 26 of device The analyzer prism 28 is preferably rotated about its axis to such a position that when no image currentis being received, substantially no light reacl es the light sensitive surface 19.
In order to compare the operation of the system just described employing a device 27 having two pairs of electrodes with a similar system employing a device similar to device 27, but having only one pair. of electrodes on which the potential of the incoming image current is impressed, let us first assume that the potential of the image current impressed on the secondary winding of transformer 34 is equal to E. Let us further assume that the plane of polarization of light reaching the Kerr cell employing a single pair of electrodes makes an angle of 45 with the planes of the parallel adjacent surfaces of the electrodes. This light may be resolved into a component parallel to the planes of the adjacent surfaces of the electrodes and an equal component at an angle of 90 therefrom. When the voltage E is applied to the electrodes, it is found that these two components are transmitted with different velocities according to the Kerr effect. The difference of the phase displacements suffered by these components on passing between the electrodes is proportional to E The amplitude of the light wave passing through the analyzer prism whose axis is rotated 90 from that of the polarizer prism is proportional to the sine of half the difference of the phase displacements of the two components. For small angular differences, the amplitude of the light transmitted is substantially directly proportional'to the difference in phase displacements and hence to E Since the intensity of the light varies as the square of the amplitude, it is proportional to E Frhen employing the four electrode device 27, as shown in Fig. 1, the difference in phase displacement- S suffered by the light components passing between electrodes 23, 24 is counteracted by the difference in phase displacement 8,, caused by the second pair of electrodes 25, 26, so that the total difference in phase displacement for the device 2'? is 5 8 Assuming that the potential of the incoming image current impressed on the secondary winding of the transformer 34 is E and the potential of source 30 is 26, then the potential impressed on electrodes 23, 24 is E+e and the potential impressed on electrodes 25, 26 is E- e. hen according to the Kerr effect:
' he constants in and depend upon the design of the device 27. Assuming that ]J=7c, then Since the amplitude of the light leaving the analyzer prism 28 is approximately proportional to 8, it is apparent that the amplitude is also approximately proportional to E instead of E as in the two-electrode Kerr cell. Since the intensity of light is proportional to the'square of its amplitude, it is proportional to E instead of E as in the twoelectrode Kerr cell.-
The system shown in Fig. 2 is similar to that shown in Fig. 1 except that a different type of circuit is employed for energizing the device 27 The same numerals as were employed to designate the elements in Fig. 1 are used to designate similar elements in Fig. 2. A constant source of alternating current 50 is connected to the primary winding of transformer 51 and the image current is impressed on the primary winding of the transformer 52. The secondary winding of the transformer'51 comprises two equal por- E=F(zf) cos wt Where t represents time, F (t) represents the unmodulated-image current potential and w represents 211- times the carrier frequency. Let the potential 6 impressed across each half of the secondary winding of transformer 51 by the current source be represented by e=c cos wt Where c is a constant and (n is 2% times the fre uenc of source 50. The values of w and it may be alike or different. Then 8= l7cEe=4lcc-F(t) cos wt cos w't This expression becomes 8=27cc-F(t) [cos(ww) t+cos(m+o) 6] Since 8 is proportional to the amplitude of the light wave leaving the analyzer prism 28, this amplitude is proportional to the image current potential F(t). The intensity of the light leaving the analyzer prism 28 is proportional to the square of the amplitude and therefore to 8 Hence cos 2wt 2 cos Zwt cos 2(0.: to) t] employ, instead of a light source, a source of energy having a frequency range which extends above or below the visible spectrum and the appended claims should be interpreted with this in mind. The invention, moreover, is not limited to a picture transmission system but may be employed in other systems, as, for example, television or sound recording systems.
What is claimed is:
1. An electr0-0ptical system comprising a sourceofgpolarized glight, means :for. utilizing lightfrom said source,, an.d means including a. source of variable. electromotivev .force for doubly ire fracting light from said. source so as to causev the amplitude 1 ofthe light waves reaching said utilizingmeans .to v vary substantially. indirect. proportion tothe variations in said electromotive force. v .2. In an electro-opticalsystem comprising asource of polarized light, meansfor doubly refracting a light wavein responseto the action-of, an electric field, means for applying a plurality of, electromotive. .forcesto :said lightrefracting; means-for setting up an electric field therein such that the amplitude of thelight wave in a given. plane is, substantially. directly proportional ,to the. amplitude of oneof said electromotive forces.
3. In an electro-optical system...a,plurality of pairs of electrodes, the planesof the adjacent-surfaces of one pair ofzelectrodes being substantially perpendicular to the ,planes rof the adjacent surfaces ofzthe'iother pair a substance between said. electrodes capablezof doubly refracting light when subjected .to
the-action of an electric field,.twosources of electromotive force, andv meansv for impressing the sum of two electromotive forces from said sources upon. one pair. of electrodes and the difference of said electromotive forces upon the other pair vofelectrodes for subjecting said substance to tric field. j. I
I. In combination, two pairs of electrodes, means for'simultaneously setting up two electric fields inclined at an angle to each other for modifying a characteristic of a beam of light, said means including a source of electromotive force and circuits for simultaneously impressing energy from said source upon both said pairs of electrodes.
5. In combination, two pairs of electrodes, means for simultaneously setting up two electric fields inclined at an angle to each other for modifying a characteristic of a beam of light, said means including a plurality of sources of electromotive force and circuits for simultaneously impressing the sum of two electromotive forces derived from said sources on one pair of electrodes and the difthe. action. of .an elecference of said electromotive forces on the other pair of electrodes.
6. In a device for controlling a characteristic of light, two pairs of electrodes a substance capable of doubly refracting a light wave when subjected to the action of an electric field, means for simultaneously. setting up in said substance two electric fields inclined at an angle to each other, said means including a source of electromotive force and circuits for simultaneously impressing energy from said source upon both said pairs of electrodes.
7. In a device for controlling a characteristic of light, two pairs of electrodes, a substance "capableef doubly '-"refractin'g*'liglit when silbj acted to the action (if; an electric field; means for "simultaneously setting up in "said substance two electric fields' inclined a't-an angle toeach'other','saidmeans includ ing a plurality 'of so'ur'c'es of ele'ct'roinotiv'e force and circuits for simultaneously inipressing the sum oftvvo electromotive forces derived from said sources ononepair of electrodes andthe difi'erence of said electromotive forces on the other pair of electrodes. 8. In 'a' system for producing images by electrical transmissi'om 1 a" source 0f image current, and image producing inea'n'sfor producing an imageunder control of currents fromsaid source,'said m'eansbompris ing a pair ofcrossed light polarizing devices, two sets of electrodes therebetween, the adjacent surfaces of one set of electrodes having their planes substantially perpendicular 'to the planes of the adjacent surfaces of the other pair,- a'substance between said 'electrodes capable of doubly"refracting light when subjected'to the action of an'electric field, a local source of electrornotive' force, and rncansfordmpressing uponone set of electrodes thesum of an el'ect'roinotive' force derived from said local source and an electroinotive force derived from said image current and-upo'nthe other set of electrodes the difference of these-electromotive -forces.-
In testimony whereof, I havesigned my name to this specification this 25th day of May,1928. y