Automatic gear shift



Julyf', 1931. G, FLElsCl-{EL 1,813,731 AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFT Filed March 4. 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 July 7, 1931. G. FLElscHEL 1,813,731 AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFT Filed March 4, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 1E I Z 47A 414 Z3 4Z 1 if il l li 'I- l' u I Patented July 7, 1931 UNITED STATES GASTON FLEISCHEL, 0F BLENEAU, FRANCE AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFT Application led March 4, 1931, Serial No. 520,0'89, and in Italy March 28, 1930. The present invention relates to automatic gear shifts and, moreparticularly, to those of the type designed to be used on automobiles or the like. Up to the present time, it hasbeen the custom to employ gear shifting levers and clutches in automatic gear shifting systems. Une ofl the objects of the present invention is to do aWay With gear shifting levers and clutches entirely, and to substitute therefore a dial type of control capable of being set for (1) reverse (2) advance (3) or neutral said control effecting all the operations normally carried out with an automobile. Another object is to provide a dial control type of electro-magnetic speed changing assembly. r1 further object is to provide an assembly of contacts capable of being moved relatively to a speed control lever and operating to automatically shift a plurality of gears or speed control mechanisms. Still further objects W-ill appear in the course of the detailed description noW to be given With reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: 1 Fig. 1 represents, diagrainmatically, one constructive embodiment of the invention; Fig. 2 is a similar diagram, partially in section ot a second form of the invention applied. to an electro-magnetic form of speed changing system;` F ig. 3 represents a variant of part of the assembly illustrated in Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a second variant of the structure shown in Fig. 2. Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, there is shown an assembly composed of the following elements: A conduit 1 connected to the Water cooling system of the motor and transmitting variations of pressure in the latter proportional to changes of speed; cooling fluid 2 delivered by conduit 1 and reacting on a diaphragm 3,'a conduit 4 connected to the intake manifold of the motor and transmitting variations in depression, produced by the latter, to a chamber 5 contiguous to diaphragm 3 and limited on opposite sides by the latter and by a second smaller diaphragm 31; a rod 32 connected to y diaphragm 3 and 31 and reacting on a pivoted lever 14; a spring 6 opposing the movement of rod 32 under the effects of increasing speed but aiding displacements due to increased depression; a roller 7 interposed between lever 14 and a pivoted system under the action of spring said roller being operative by the vehicle operator to modify the automatic control, a manually operable link-andlevcr system being connected to said roller for this purpose; a snatch-gear assembly designed to obtain three advancing and one reverse speed and comprising a rotatable shaft 8 having a plurality of guiding ribs or slots formed in the longitudinal direction thereof, a main clutch element 9 slidably mounted on said shaft a pair of speed changing gears 10 and 11, slidably guided on the same shaft, three advancing and one reversing gear, I, Il, Hl, and MA respectively, a pair of cams 12 and 13 provided With appropriate slots and operating to eil'cct displacement of elements 10 and 11 to change speed, -a shaft 15 supporting cams 12 and 13 and adapted to rotate in opposite directions, a motor shaft 16 connected to a motor (notl shown) and iitted With a pinion adapted to indirectly drive shaft 15, reversing assembly 17, 171, 172, driven by shaft 16 and including v electro-magnetically operated clutches 171 and 172 adapted to eliect rotation of shaft 15 in one direction or the other (as will appear from inspection of the drawings), a cam 2O keyed to shaft 15 and operative to actuate main clutch 9, and a compensating device 201, spring actuated, and operative to throw out clutch 9 each time that a change of speed ratio is elected; a pair of contacts 191 and 192 positioned in the pat-h of movement of the conducting extremity of lever 14 and adapted to control the gear shifting operations on the increasing or decreasing sides; a battery 18 connected to the insulated end of lever 14, and adapted to supply current via terminals 191 and 192 to clutches 171 and 172 so as to rotate a dial assembly designed to control the various snatch gears so as to obtain (1) three advancing speeds, (2) one reverse speed, or (3) operation in neutral, and consisting of a pair of cams 23 and 24 and an indicating hand 22 all keyed to shaft 15 (the latter are shown as they would appear if shaft 15 were viewed end-wise) cams 23`and 24 being provided with bosses 231 and 241 respectively formed'so as to close and open circuits to be described further on con trolling reverse (position 7') forward movement (position s) and neutral (position t), the length of boss 231 being substantially equal to the distance t r, and that of boss 241, that of distance t l9,-two pairs of switches 251, 252, 261, 262 adapted to be closed or opened by bosses 231 and 241 in a manner to be described further on,-an insulated dial 2l with contacts2511, 2511, 261 and 261 positioned in similar relation to one another as switches 251, 252 and 261,262, contact points 2511 and 251 being positioned concentrically and in spaced relation to Contact points 2611 and 2611,-conductors exending between points 251 and 2511, 252 and 2511, 261 and 26, and 262 and 2 61,-an index 27 and a pair of circular sectors mounted on dial 21, the latter being connected to source of current 18 and positioned-so that sector 23 may be moved to bridge the gap between contact points 2511 and 251 while sector 24 may be moved to bridge contact points 2611 and 2611, said sectors being spaced angular-ly so that when e dial 21 is in neutral position 't1, they are clear of contact points 251 and 2611 lying along the same radius,-and conductors extending from switches 251 and 252 to clutch 171 and from switches 261 and 262 to clutch 172. The herein above described assembly func-- tions in the following manner: The automatic gear shifting assembly operates under the combined action of (1) thecirculating pump (rotary or like type) effecting changes of pressure of uid 2 proportional to changes in motor speed; (2) changes in the depression in the intake manifold which are a'function of both the speed and the load on the motor; and (3) spring 6 favoring displacements due to the load speed complex and opposing those due to the speed alone, these combined variables react on control lever 14 (1) so as to bring the conducting end of the latter into contact with terminals 191 or 192 so as to actuate either one of clutches 171 or 172, or (2) else act to move said conducting end into position between said terminals to obtain operation in neutral; assuming the assembly to be in the position shown in Figure 1, that is to say, with index 27 of dial 21 in the position t1, shaft 15 in position t and switches 251 and 262 in open position, it will be seen that current cannot pass by switches 252 and 261 in spite of the fact that they be closed since contact points 25b and 26u are out of contact with sectors 232 and 241L and that, therefore, clutches 171 and 172 cannot be operated; if, now, index 27 of dial 21 be moved into position 1'1 corresponding to reverse, sector 2311 ated and shaft 15 will turn until index 22 comes into vline with position 1' (one-fifth of a turn); when this happens, boss 241 will move away from switch 261, the circuit leading to clutch 17 2 will" be broken, and shaft 15 will come to rest after having rotated cam 12 through an angle sullicient to actuate the ,gears controlling reverse; during this time cam 20, rotating with shaft 15, actuates main clutch 9 so as to assure driving action in the reverse direction if after having moved hackward anyv desired distance, the operator wishes to stop the vehicle, he moves dial 21 so that index 27 indicates position t1; the circuit between sector 24a andl terminal 26 is then broken while switch 251 closes under the action of boss 231, index 22 of shaft 15 having remained in position?, currentfrom source 18 will then pass via sector 2311, terminal 2511, and switch 251 to clutch 171 so as to rotate shaft 15 in the opposite direction and return the latter to neutral position; in rotating, shaft 15, after having thrown out principal clutch 9, throws the reversing element MA out of gear, opens switch 251 when rotation has been sufficient to return index 22 to position t, and closes switch 252; if the operato-r wishes to advance ,in the normal way, dial 21 is rotated so that index 27 indicates points s1; sector 23 coming in Contact with terminal' 2511 then energizes clutch 171 and rotates shaft 15, switch 252 remains closed until boss 231 moving toward position s, moves away thereby opening the circuit to clutch 171 and stopping shaft 15 (one-fifth of a turn) therotation of shaft 15 (principal clutch 9 is thrown out by cam 20 when shaft 15 is in neutral position) causes cam 12 to move the gears into first speed I, then actuates clutch 9 through the intermediary of cam 20; .it is only after the gears are in driving relation for first speed that lever 14 is able to become active since prior thereto, it had not been in conductive relation with bat- `into contact with a special terminal a: corresponding to position s1 of dial 21 for this conductive relation be established (during the movement of shaft 15 from position t to position s, lever 14, although connected to battery 18, does not leave neutral position since the forces acting thereon are not suficient to effect its displacement); lever 14 will then act automatically to energize clutches 171 or 17 2 by contacting with terminals 191 or 192 according as the speed of, or the load on, the motor moves toward the increasing or decreasing sides; if at any time, the operator wishes to stop the vehicle or disyengage the drive, he moves index 27 oppoi site point t1 thus closing the`v circuit through clutch 172 via sector 24'1, terminal 26h and switch 262 so as to return shaft 15 to neutral position; if, inadvertently or voluntarily, the vehicle operator moves dial 21 to posit1on t1 when t e gears are in second speed II, he breaks the circuit at m between battery 18 It is to be understood that by providing a plurality of switches of the type of switch 28, the vehicle operator may, at will, bring any combination of gears above first speed into play. It suiiices, in such a case, to connect the switches in question to cams 23 and 24 and to a` plurality of terminals similar to a; mounted on dial 21. The operator may thus direct the current from\terminals to lever 14 and so obtain automatic or manually controlled operation at will. It is to be understood, of course, that assembly 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, may be replaced by any other type of mechanism responding either to changes of speed of or changes of load on, the motor. In the form of -device shown in Fig. 2, changes of speed are automatically effected by centrifugal masses 30 pivotally mounted on motor shaft 31 and also by combined changes of motor speed and load eected by movement of a diaphragm 33 positioned in a chamber 32 connected by a conduit 31 to the intake manifold of the motor, said diaphragm acting on a lever 34 against the action of a spring to displace a link-and-lever system tobe described further on. A roller 36, similar to roller 7 in Fig. 1 permits modiiication of the automatic control by the vehicle operator. The speed changing assembly is, here, of the electro-magnetic type and includes three forward speeds I, II, III, and one reverse speed MA. Electro-magnetic clutches 411, 412 and 413 receive current from rings 421, 422 and 423, respectively, connected to a series of terminals 431, 432 and 433 and operate to change the ratio of multiplication between motor shaft 39 and driven shaft 40. A similar assembly 414, 424 and 434 actuates the reverse drive, while a dead terminal 435 comes into action during neutral operation. The circuit actuating clutches 411, 412 and 413 are energized automatically by a lever similar to element 14 in Fig. 1, but, in order that the vehicle operator may control the movements of said lever so as to displace the latter at will toward neutral, reverse or advancing positions, means must be provided for adjusting the position thereof manually. fore, The single lever 14 shown in Fig. 1 is, therereplaced by a combination of three 1evers'14., 14h, and 14; Lever 14El follows the dlsplacements of centrifugal masses 30 and of lever 34 and controls automatic gearshlfting when the vehicle is advancing. Ii prolonged, it could contact terminals 431, 432' or 433. Lever 14b may be displaced manually by the vehicle operator by means of a dial 21 capable of occupying anyone of three positions 81, t1 and r1 corresponding respectively-to advance, neutral. and reverse operation. This latter lever follows the displacement of dial 21 under the combined opposing action of a cable 44 and a spring 45. This lever, if extended would -occupy a position lying outside of contact terminals 433, 434 and V435. Its course is, therefore, suflicient to embrace all of the terminals. Lever 14c is connected to the source of electrical energy and may contact with any one of the terminals to throw in or throw out any orall of the clutches and is connected to lever 14a by a spring 46 suliiciently strong to insure its movement with the latter in the direction of arrow X (increasing speeds). It is to be noted that lever 14c serves merely to make and break the various circuits and encounters no appreciable resistance in the course of its movement. A pin 47 mounted on lever 14c acts to displace the latter in the direction of decreasing speeds from terminal 433 toward 431 under the action of lever 142. Lever 14C is displaced by lever 14b through the intermediary of a pin 47 mounted on the former and inthe direction of arrow Y from terminal 431 toward terminals 434 and 435. The return of lever 142, as soon as the action of pin 48 ceases, is effected by a spring 46 connected to lever 1411, the latter being maintained in the position corresponding to iirst speed. with any one of Vhen the vehicle is operating in third speed, that is to say, in direct drive, and the position, lever 14c is displaced by pin 48 so as to throw out of action the various other speed combinations without intervention of the automatic speed regulating elements, this being rendered possible by spring 46. The same result couldbe obtained by employing a single lever 14 similar to the one shown in Figure 1 connected to the source of current and capable of being displaced intocontact with any one terminals 431, 432 o 433. In such a case, to permit the vehicle operator to obtain either neutral operation or reverse, terminal assembly 431 to 435 should be mounted on a movable support (Figure 4) capable of being displaced about the point of articulation of lever 14 as a center. By displacing said support manually or otherwise against action of spring 451, any desired terminal may be brought into contact with Fig. 3 shows a variant of a triple-lever control of the type represented in Fig. 2, the speed-changing operations being effected bymeans of a cam shaft similar to shaft 15 in Fig. 1. Lever 14 is not, as in Fig. 1, normall in neutral position, but can occupy a num r of Characteristic positions correspondingl to the five operating conditions shown in Fig. 2. In the triple-lever assembly, lever 14a moves under the action of the automatic speed-changing devices (elements 30 and 34 in Fig. 2 or rod 32 in Fig. 1) and on lever 14 through the intermediary of spring 46 and pin 47. Lever 14b may be displaced by the vehicle operator by means of a dial 21 (Figure 2) so as to displace lever 14 through the intermediary of pin 48. Lever 14 carries a conducting terminal 51 connected to the source of electrical energy and is capable of contacting with one of two circular sectors 52 and 53 composed of conducting material and supported in insulated relation to a sector 54 keyed to shaft 15, said last-named -sector functioning as current distributor. In order to facilitate the explanation of the manner in which this assembly operates, a series of indices o, t, s, II, III, IV etc., have been marked along the course of movement of lever 14 to show when the latter isin the position corresponding to reverse, neutral, and the various advancing speeds, shaft 15, obviously, occupyinga predetermined position corresponding to each of these operating conditions. Shaft 15 may be driven by a combination similar to 16, 17, 171 and 172, showin in Fig. 1, clutch 171 being connected to sector 52 to control increasing speed-changes and clutch 17 2, to sector 53 to effect decreasing s eed combinations. This assembly unctions in the following manner: Assuming that the various operating elements are in a position shown in Fig. 3, that is to say, in neutral, lever 14 occupyin a position between, and ou-t of contact wlth, sectors 52 and 53, while shaft 15 is at rest; when the operator displaces his dial so as to move lever 14b so that pin 48 reacts on lever 14 to bring the latter in line with index r and in contact with sector 53, current iiows toward clutch 172 and shaft 15 begins to turn in the direction of arrow Z until the non-l conducting interval between sectors 52 and 53 moves into line with lever 14; the circuit is then broken and shaft 15 stops in the position for which cam 12 (Fig. 1) has effected the proper gear combination for reverse (MA) if the operator moves the dial into. neutral position, lever 14 moves into contact with sector 52 thus closing the circuit through clutch 171 and shaft 15 rotates in the direction opposite to arrow Z until the various operating elements are back into a position represent-ed in Fig. 3; when the operator displaces dial 21 to vindicate s1 ig. 2), lever 14 moves into position before index` s and shaft 15 follows the movement until the -current is interrupted; the automatic speed-controlling elements may then enter into action to displace lever 14 into positions s, II, III, etc., in accordance with changes of load or speed'or both. y In order to permit the operator to move into neutral position irrespective of the conditions of operative, sector 53 is made sufliciently long to remain in contact with lever 14 whatever be the position of sector 54. Shaft 15 will therefore rotate without stopping through the entire range of descending speed positions independently of 'the automatic speed-control assembly. A If it be desired that shaft 15 be capable of efectinrr a complete rotation While lever 14 moves through an angle less than 360, sectpr 54 and levers 14, 14b and 14 may be mounted on an auxiliary shaft and movement may be`transmitted thereto in demultiplying relation by means of a toothed sector meshing with a pinion keyed to shaft 15. It is perfectly obvious that the invention is not limited to the particular features shown in any single figure; thus, automatic s eed-control combination 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, in iig. 1 may be replaced by Acombination 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 in Fig. 2, or by any one of the devices equivalent thereto disclosed in applicants co-pending application, -Ser. No. 440,020, filed March 28, 1930, the single or triple-control lever combinations shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 may be used interchangeably; the electro-magnetic speed changing assembly shown in Fig. 2 may be used interchangeably with the one shown in Fig. 1 in combination with the various automatic speed-controlled devices above mentioned, or with any one of the lever controls referredto. From the foregoing, it 'will be seen that the vehicle operator needs only adjust dial 21 to indicate advances or reverse and then depress the accelerating pedal to obtain automatic operation, all clutches and gear shifting levers being done away with. What I claim is 1. In combination, a motory including a driving shaft, a driven shaft means for coupling said driving and driven shafts in various'speed ratios, means including a lever operative by changes in the load on the motor and by variations in speed of one of said shafts to actuate said last named means, a movable control adapted to occupy any one of three positions corresponding to operation of the motor in reverse, neutral, and advance, and means operative by the displacement of said movable control to react on both of the aforementioned means so that the vehicle may operate in reverse, neutral, and in any one of a plurality of advancing speeds. 2. In a vehicle assembly a motor including a -driving shaft, a driven shaft, means for coupling-said driving and driven shafts in various speed ratios, means including a lever operative by both changes in load on the motor and by variations in speed in one of said shafts to actuate said last named means, a movable control mounted to occupy lany one of lthree positions corresponding tooperation of the vehiclein reverse, neutral and advance, and electrical means operable by dislever operative by .mediary,of the latter, b placement of said movable control toV actuate said lever so that the driving and driven shafts are coupled in relations corresponding to neutral, reverse, and any one of a plurality of advancing speeds'. 3. In a vehicle assembly, a motor including a driving shaft, a driven shaft, means for coupling said driving and driven shaft in various advancing ratios arid in reverse, means including a lever operative by both changes in load on the motor and variations in speed of one of said shafts to actuate the said la'st named means, a dial operativeto occupy any one of a plurality of positions corresponding to operation in advance, neutral, and reverse, and electrical meansoperative by movement of said dial into one of said plurality of posi.- tions to actuate said lever so that the vehicle may operate in neutral, reverse, or any one of a plurality of advancing speeds. 4. In the vehicle assembly, a motor including a driving shaft, a driven' shaft, means for coupling said driving and driven shafts in neutral, reverse, and any one of a pluralityv of advancing speeds, means including a first variations in motor load and by changes in the speed of one of said shafts to actuate said last named means, a second lever coupled elastically to said first named lever, a movable control element connected to said second lever and operative to react o n said first lever through the .interand means operative y displacement of said movable control and by said first lever to actuate said first named s means so that the motor operates in neutral, reverse, and in any one of a plurality of advancing speeds. 5. In a vehicle assembly, a motor including a driving shafta driven shaft, means for coupling sald driving and driven shafts in occupy an correspon various speed ratios, electrical means including a plurality of terminals operative to control said lastnamed means, means including al first lever positioned to move into contact with any one of said terminals, said first lever being responsive to variations inload on the motor and changes in speed ofone of said shafts, 'a second lever flexibly connected to said rst lever,a rotatable dial adapted' to ing to operations in neutral, reverse, and advance and connected to said second lever, one of a plurality of positions whereby rotation of said dial willf successively displace said second and third levers to actuate said first named means so that the vehicle opera-tes in neutral, reverse, and' in any one of a plurality of advancing speeds. f 6. A structure as defined in claim 5 in combination with means for displacing said first lever and said terminalrelatively to one another. A I f 7. In a vehicle assembly, an automatic gear shift including a driving shaft, a driven shaft, means for driven shafts at varlous speed ratios and in relations corresponding to neutral, and advance, a cam shaft controlling said' last named means, means operative by changes in load on, and by variations in speed of, the motor to control rotation of said cam shaft, hand operated means controlling rotation of said cam shaft and operative to actuate said coupling said driving and shafts are coupled in neutral, reverse, and advancing relation as desired. 8.' Ina vehicle assembly, a motor includ'- ing a driving shaft, a driven shaft, means for coupling said driving and driven shafts in various advance speed ratios and in reverse, a cam shaft controlling said means, means operative by variations in load on the motor and by changes in speed to rotate said cam shaft in steps of one fifth of a-revolution, each of said steps corresponding to a different relative speed of the driving and driven shafts, and hand controlled means operative to rotate said cam shaft in steps of one fifth of -a lrevolution, whereby said cam shaft .may occupy a position corresponding to any one of several advance speeds, neutral, and reverse, as desired. 9'. In combination, driving shaft, a driven pling said driving and a motor including a shaft, means for coudriven shaft 1n various speed ratios, means including a leveroperative by changes in suction exerted by the motor to actuate said last named means, a movable control mounted to occupy any one of three positions corresponding to operationv of the vehicle in reverse, neutral and In testimony whereof I affix my signature. GASTON FLEISCHEL. 'operative by displace-



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Cited By (3)

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    US-2495515-AJanuary 24, 1950Packard Motor Car CoTransmission control means
    US-2526375-AOctober 17, 1950William E LeibingControl device for change-speed transmissions
    US-2671351-AMarch 09, 1954Carl A NeracherElectrically operated gear shift and clutch control mechanism for transmissions